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Water filtration system from c-2 bottles 0809

Page history last edited by ecop 11 years, 9 months ago

 

 

C2 Water Bottle Filter

Kian Ransom

 

 


Description and Rationale

 

 

C2 is a commonly enjoyed drink all across the Philippines, thousands of C2       bottles are left empty every day. Even at Faith Academy, I notice trash cans loaded with C2 bottles after lunch hours. I then thought to myself, is they something else we could do with these bottles? Do these bottles just end up being burnt, or buried in landfills? I certainly hope not. If anything, at least they should be recycled.

         

          Certain Question came to my mind. Could there be better uses for empty C2 bottles? Could people used them for anything long term? How many of the bottle s even end up being recycled? Could the average person in the Philippines uses the empty C2 bottles to make something else?

 

 

          I then had a possible solution of my own. Could it be possibly to create a homemade C2 water bottle filter system? After initial research, I found that manila water was treating the water they pumped out, but no very efficiently. Many Filipinos were still getting sick and dying from water borne illnesses. So then I decided to focus my attention to one specific and very common water borne bacteria; Cholera. I decided to do my best to attempt to create a filter using empty C2 bottles that could successfully, and safely remove Cholera, and hopefully other dangerous bodies in our water systems.

 

 

          Initially many concerns and question came to mind. How could this be done efficiently? How could this be tested? Could the average Filipino build it as easily as me? Would the average Filipino have the same and necessary materials as me? How long would this take, how long could it last? These were only a few of the many questions I would have to answer along the road.  

 

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Biology

 

Common Names and Synonyms

 

Natively know as Ood (oh ode), Vibro cholerae, or  “Cholera” is a wide spread virus that lives in water. It’s also been called a stomach bug by some.

 

 

 

 

Classification

 

 

-Kingdom:Bacteria-ubiquitous one-celled organisms, spherical, spiral, or rod-shaped and appearing singly or in chains

-Phylum: Proteobacteria-a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens

-Class: Gammaproteobacteria-a class of several medically and scientifically important groups of bacteria

-Order: Vibrionales-Inhabitants of fresh or salt water, several species are pathogenic

-Family: Vibrionaceae-Most bioluminescent bacteria belong to this family, and are typically found as symbiotes of deep-sea animals.

-Genus:Vibrio-Any of a group of aquatic, comma-shaped bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae

-Species: Vibrio cholerae-a gram negative curved-rod shaped bacterium with a polar flagella that causes cholera in humans.

 

 

 

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Morphology and Physical Description

 

 

Cholera is a comma shaped bacterium. It has one flagellum for mobility. Once inside a human, the cholera’s shape allows it to be absorbed into the intestine where it then releases its toxin.

 

 

 

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Getting Food

 

Cholera metabolism is still not completely researched. Intitial research suggests that the Cholera conduct anaerobic respiration. This makes sense considering they are able to survive in such harsh environments. Others have said that cholera is able to metabolize through fertilization.

 

 

 

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Reproduction

  Cholera reproduces a sexually through binary fission. During the early stages of the cells life, the organelles are surrounded by a thick, and hardly permeable envelope, but during the second stage of growth, the Cholera toxin begins production, and the envelope become semi-permeable.

 

 

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Environmental Factors

 

These Bacteria are hurting our water supplies. In turn they are hurting us. As the quote said “just over a third of the countries river systems remain viable for public water supply” Considering how the Philippines had hundreds of rivers, that is a very significant number of contaminated rivers. We are past the point of being careful about our water systems. We are now at a point where we need to try and fix things. Cholera also lives unopposed. It’s able to swim freely and spread its sickening toxins.

           

 

 

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Origin and Distribution

 

 

The first know location of Vibro cholerea, was in the Ganges delta, in India. These first findings were in 1817. V. cholera is believed to be native there. These days, Cholera can be found worldwide, but primarily in Southeast Asia. This is because of less efficient water purification and sanitization systems.   

Population massing has played a huge role in the distribution of these bacteria. “According to the Water Environment Partnership in Asia, nearly 2.2 million metric tons of organic pollution are produced annually by domestic (48 percent), agricultural (37 percent) and industrial (15 percent) sectors.” (manilatimes.net)

 

 

 

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Importance to People

 

“Some 88 percent of diseases worldwide is attributed to unsafe water supply” (manilatimes.net)

            “Each year, around 6,000 Filipinos die prematurely from waterborne or water-related diseases, such as diarrhea, which is the second leading cause of morbidity in the Philippines”. (manilatimes.net)

            Not all these diseases are cholera, but cholera is within the 2nd most common in the Philippines.

        Diarrhea is most commonly caused by “Virus [biology]” viral infections, “Parasites” parasites or “Bacterium” bacterial toxins. Where living conditions are sanitary and with ample good food and good potable water guaranteed, a person sick with diarrhea usually recovers from in a few days. However, for malnourished individuals diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration and death without treatment and rich dietary reinforcement.”

Water born diseases can be very serious for the Fillipino people. 50-70% of impoverished people who contract cholera die. This is why, if I am able to successfully create a filter, which can faithfully, and successfully remove cholera and other bacteria from the water, the Fillipino people could be greatly benefitted.

 

 

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Survivability and Endangered Status

 

Unfortunately, cholera is not in any way at all endangered. To make matters worse, cholera can survive in some of the most extreme conditions. Since cholera can reproduce asexually, and feed autotrophicly, it can survive in practically every, and any source of water. The only way the population can be controlled is by killing the bacteria. This can be done through water purification and sanitization systems.

 

 

 

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Potential Solutions

 

Cholera is a potentially deadly bacterium. The harm it can cause to a malnourished or dehydrated person can be fatal. Unfortunately, a large percent of the Philippines is malnourished or dehydrated. Cholera itself is not directly responsible for death, but it causes diarrhea. Diarrhea can severely damage a malnourished individual. “Each year, around 6,000 Filipinos die prematurely from waterborne or water-related diseases, such as diarrhea, which is the second leading cause of morbidity in the Philippines”. (manilatimes.net) Cholera is the second largest water related disease in the Philippines (Manilawater). Listed below, are what I believe are the three best ways to help Filipino people avoid and protect themselves from cholera related illness. Along with each possibility are multiple advantages and disadvantages that present themselves with each potential solution.

 

Possibility 1 -

 

 

Boiling Water

 

 

One very popular, and probably the most common, method of water purification is boiling. When heated to the point of boiling, the heat can kill the cholera bacteria. This is an effective method that the typical Filipino family uses to treat their water. Usually, as part of the daily routine, the family will boil a pot of water right before bed time. As they sleep, the water cools, and a new batch of “clean” water is ready every day  Still, despite the simplicity of this method, many families still choose to drink their water straight from the tap. If people could be educated or taught simple boiling techniques, then they might be able to avoid contact with cholera.

 

 

Advantages:

 

 

1)      Boiling water will kill cholera, and many other potentially harmful organisms.

 

 

2)      Boiling water is relatively cheap, and can be easily incorporated into daily routine.   

 

 

3)      Boling water requires very few materials, only a metal pot, a fire, and some water are necessary.

 

 

Disadvantages:

 

 

1)      Boiling water takes time. If someone ran out of water and needed more, they would have to wait for the water to boil, then for it to cool down as well. This could take 30 to 40 minutes.

 

 

2)      Boiling water usually involves an “open” fire. Dealing with fire everyday increases the risk of burns, or even property damage. Also, the left over ash can leave a mess, and the daily clouds of smoke can hurt our environment.

 

 

3)      Spilling freshly boiled water on oneself can be extremely painful. Our neighbor’s daughter once spilled on her hand, and the burns looked very painful.

 

 

            4)   Boiled water has a taste that some find unappealing.

 

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Possibility 2 -

 

Education, and Warning

 

 

        Perhaps the reason for so many people choosing to not treat their water is because they are simply unaware of the danger. A free seminar or informative lecture might help the people become more aware.

 

 

Advantages:

 

 

1)      People will become more aware of the danger of cholera.

 

 

2)      People might be more careful about the water they drink

 

 

3)      People might actually take the next, and take action to make sure their water is safe.

 

 

Disadvantages:

 

 

1)      People might not care

 

 

2)      This doesn’t necessarily guarantee people will do anything to protect themselves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Possibility 3 -

 

 

Homemade filtration system

 

 

        Could the water be purified be a cheaper, homemade resource? I decided to use empty “C2” bottles to attempt to construct an effective, homemade water purification system. This would accomplish two things. The first of which, would be an alternative water filter system. The second would be that it would help take advantage of a wasted resource. Instead of letting the C2 bottle find their ways into a land fill, they could be of much more use helping purify water.

 

 

 

 

 Advantages:

           

1)      A cheap and efficient means for clean water.

2)      A good use of a wasted resource

3)      Allows for clean water without the “boiled” taste.

 

 

4)      Produces instant clean water,

 

 

Disadvantages:

 

 

1)      Improper construction can allow cholera to sneak through

 

 

2)      Can only be temporary before it needs to be replaced due to mosses and molds growing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Bibliography

 

 

"Bio-logical Filter." The world famous "Skippy" Filter. Skippys Ponds and Gardens. 6 May 2009 <http://www.skippysstuff.com/biofiltr.htm>.

 

 

"Cholera." Www.doh.gov.ph. 2006. Department of Health. 6 May 2009 <http://www.doh.gov.ph/healthadvisories/cholera>.

 

 

"Cholera." Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 6 May 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera>.

 

 

"Cholera." Who: Cholera. World Health Organization. 6 May 2009 <http://www.who.int/topics/cholera/en/>.

 

 

Galante, J. "Basic Rain Water Filter System." Rain Water Filter System. Baproducts. 6 May 2009 <http://www.baproducts.com/rainwatr.htm>.

 

 

"Homemade water filters." Online Tips. OnlineTips.Org. 6 May 2009 <http://www.onlinetips.org/homemade-water-filters>.

 

 

"Safeguarding Health and Safety." Manila Water Company. 06 May 2009 <http://www.manilawater.com>.

 

 

Suganob, Nestor. "Water Treatment." Telephone interview.

 

 

 

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