| 
  • If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Finally, you can manage your Google Docs, uploads, and email attachments (plus Dropbox and Slack files) in one convenient place. Claim a free account, and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio (from the makers of PBworks) can automatically organize your content for you.

View
 

Virgin Coconut Oil Production 0708

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 10 months ago
Virgin Coconut oil
Two production methods and its alternate use
By Isaac Choi

                                                                                         


Description and Rationale

 

        Virgin Coconut oil is made by hand in the Philippines, using a traditional Philippine method of extraction. First the fresh coconut is opened and grated. After that the flesh is pressed, producing a fresh coconut milk that is about 40% oil. Within 12 hours, the natural enzymes from the coconut will break down the protein in the coconut milk releasing the oil. As the oil floats, it is taken off. Similar to many tropical countries you can find numerous amounts of coconut trees in the Philippines. It is evident that many families in the Philippines depend on the production of the coconuts/oil.

        What is the impact of coconut oil on the people? Are they selling it for a good price to the dealers? Are there different uses of the coconut oil? Do the people who depend on coconuts and coconut oil know the benefits of the coconut oil? Is there a different way to manufacture the coconut oil? Is there a faster way to manufacture it?

        Are there any new ways to use the coconut oil? From the research, it is said that coconut oil is one of the most important products with many uses. It varies from cooking, to making margarine, soap, cosmetics, skin treatment, fuel and more. Coconut oil is highly recommended for heart disease. It is also helpful for pregnant women, nursing moms, the elderly, those concerned about digestive health, and those who want to enhance their overall health. As a traditional medicine, coconut oil is looked upon as a universal healer.  It is used to care for a variety of health problems, which includes many diseases such as abscesses, asthma, bronchitis, colds, constipation, cough, gingivitis, kidney stones, skin infections sore throat and more. Filipinos who have certain diseases who cannot afford expensive medicine should know other treatments. If beneficial uses of the coconut oil is found what would be the best way to communicate the findings to the people and barangays?

        The starting of this project will be to research essential information of coconut oil through a search of literature as well as firsthand observations and interviews with people who make coconut oil possibly with an assistance of a Tagalog-speaking interpreter. These facts will help guide the experimental phase, where key variables in the coconut oil benefits and usefulness will be further explored.

        It is hoped that the better uses of the coconut oil might help improve the livelihood through financial needs or medical treatments through a more informed understanding of a plentiful biological resource.                                 

                                                                                            

table of contents...

Biology

 

Common Names and Synonyms

 

      The scientific name of the coconut palm is Cocos nucifera. Cocos nucifera is also called the bearing nuts tree. Some synonyms of coconut tree are coconut, coconut palm, coco palm, coco, and cocoa palm. Coconut experts call different varieties of coconuts by their physical characteristics and some of them being Atlantic or Jamaica Tall, Malaya Dwarf, MayJam, MayPan or MaPan and more. Other synonyms of coconuts include: Maphrao on (Thailand), niyog (Tagalog), coco (Spanish), nyiur (Malaysian) and niu (Hawaiian).

 

Classification

 

Kingdom: Plantae (plants)

Phylum: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)

Class: Liliopsida (monocots)

Order: Arecales (flowering plants)

Family: Arecaceae (palm)

Genus: Cocos (keel)

Species: C. nucifera (bearing nuts)

 

There are different varieties of coconut palms. They are classified by the height, size of the trunk, color of the coconut, number of coconuts they bear each year, and how long it takes for them to bear fruit. Some examples are Atlantic or Jamaica Tall, Malaya Dwarf, MayJam, MayPan or MaPan.

 

 

table of contents...

 

Morphology and Physical Description

 

       The Coconut palm is the only species in the genus Cocos, and it is very large growing to 30m tall, with pinnate (multi-divided) leaves 4-6m long. When the leaves turn old, they break away cleanly leaving the trunk smooth. A coconut is a simple dry nut known as a fibrous drupe. A drupe is a fruit in which an outer fleshy part surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside.

       The husk is made up of fibers called coir and inside there is an inner stone. The outside of the coconut has three germination pores that are clearly visible on the outside surface as the husk is removed. Internally, the inside wall of the inner stone, is the testa (coat of a seed), with a thick endosperm (the coconut meat), and the fleshy edible part.

       The coconut meat surrounds an empty interior space, full of liquid endosperm inside young coconut known as coconut water and air. Depending on the size of the coconut the coconut contains coconut liquid in the range of 300 to 1,000 ml per nut.

        The coconut palm has roots continually produced from the basal 40cm or so of the trunk. It has not taproot or root hairs but has lots of primary roots. The main roots grow out horizontally and are mostly found in the topsoil. The roots are identical and the main roots reach to a maximum diameter of about 1cm. The root tip is the actively growing part and behind the root tip is the absorbing area whose epidermis is a single layer of thin-walled cells.

        The stem develops from the single bud called the ‘cabbage’ which is the palm’s only vegetative growing point. In good conditions, the foundation of the trunk of a young palm reaches full development within 3-4years. In some of the tall types, the base of the trunk is up to 0.8m in diameter and when it is once formed the trunk does not change much in diameter. The stem of the coconut palm grows fastest at early stages, which can grow up to 1.5m per year. The increased growth rate levels off as the palms grow older up to 10-15cm per year at about the 40th year and over.

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

table of contents...

 

 Getting Food

 

     Coconut palm of course as a plant use photosynthesis to make food for its own. Some of the nutrients that help make coconut more productive are magnesium, zinc, boron, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, organic carbon. Lack of magnesium causes yellowing of leaves and lack of zinc and boron causes dwarfed and deformed growth of leaves. Coconut trees are seen in the tropical countries where there are lasting sunlight and the temperature above 23C.

Reproduction

      The coconut tree has both male and female flowers in the same flowering heads. The coconut tree starts to flower after six to seven years and the flowering head grow in the leaf axilis (where the leaf meets the stem). The flowering head is branched and it has two separate flowers which are male and female flowers. The insects pollinate in these two flowers because they attract the insects with sweet smell and nectar.

       The pollen is also light so they can get blown away by a wind to other flowers for pollination. Additionally, in the coconut trees, the male flower matures before the female flower matures so the flowers in the same flowering heads are not able to pollinate each other. Each coconut tree produces about 70-100 coconuts per year and to the maximum of 150 coconuts.

 

Reproduction

 

      The coconut tree has both male and female flowers in the same flowering heads. The coconut tree starts to flower after six to seven years and the flowering head grow in the leaf axilis (where the leaf meets the stem). The flowering head is branched and it has two separate flowers which are male and female flowers. The insects pollinate in these two flowers because they attract the insects with sweet smell and nectar.

       The pollen is also light so they can get blown away by a wind to other flowers for pollination. Additionally, in the coconut trees, the male flower matures before the female flower matures so the flowers in the same flowering heads are not able to pollinate each other. Each coconut tree produces about 70-100 coconuts per year and to the maximum of 150 coconuts.

 

 

Environmental Factors

 

      Coconut palms are more likely to grow on sandy beaches because the conditions are more ideal for them. It is an ideal condition for the coconut palms because in the sandy beaches there is a humid atmosphere, a temperature of 27-30 °C, a free draining well-aerated (exposed to effect) soil and a supply of fresh groundwater.

      There are several diseases that may use coconut as a host. Coconuts are open to the phytoplasma disease meaning lethal yellowing. A new coconut, ‘Maypan’, has been bred to resist this disease. The coconut is also widely used as a food plat by the species of butterfly and moth. The coconut hispine beetle is considered one of the most damaging pests of coconut and other palm species. The beetle feeds on young leaves, which then appear burned or scorched. The beetle causes great damage to seedlings and mature coconut palms, kills the young spears and eventually the whole palm.

 

table of contents...

 

 

Origin and Distribution

 

      The coconut palm’s origins are controversial but with most authorities claim it to be from South Asia. The writers concluded that coconuts had reached America naturally by floating or they may have been carried by ancient voyagers. Now a day the coconut palms are in most of the planet between latitudes 26ºN and 26ºS. Coconut palms are better off in warm conditions for successful growth, and cannot survive in the cold weather.

 

 

Importance to People

 

       To go into the project more specifically, the virgin coconut oil is called virgin coconut oil because the coconut is derived from a fresh coconut rather than the dried. There are there ways to make the virgin coconut oil. First is by quickly drying the fresh coconut meat in which it is used to press out the oil. Wet-milling (coconut milk), with this method the oil is extracted from fresh coconut meat without drying the meat. Coconut milk is first expressed by pressing. The oil is than separated from the water by boiling, fermentation, refrigeration, enzymes and mechanical centrifuge. Wet milling (direct micro expelling) in this method, the oil is extracted from the fresh coconut meat after the adjusting of the water content, then the pressing of the coconut flesh results in the direct extraction of free-flowing oil. Virgin coconut oil has many different uses starting from cosmetics, skin treatment, cooking ingredient, fuel and more. As mentioned in the rationale section it can cure many diseases for it is known as a universal healer. Many people who cannot afford expensive medicine use coconut oil as a medicine.

        As well as the coconut oil, coconut has so many uses and is widely used for numerous things. It is highly valued among all the people because it can be used for many things. First among the culinary uses you can include the white fleshy part of the coconut seed and it is eaten fresh or dried and in cooking. It can be used as a refreshing drink on a hot day and it contains sugar, antioxidants, proteins, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Through the extraction coconut oil is made, palm wine, sap also made into sweet syrup or into candy. These kinds of things are very popular among the people.

        Non culinary things include ropes, mats, and brushed made by coir (fiber from the husk of the coconut). Furniture from the palm wood, fuel from shells, toothbrush and mouthwash made of roots, rugs from coconut fiber, and trunks of the coconuts are used to help stabilize buildings as lumber.

 

Survivability and Endangered Status

 

     Coconut palms can survive in any of the tropical countries. As I have said, it can be grown best in the sandy and it can survive in any temperature higher that 23C. It is intolerant in cold weather. Coconut palm is not a competing plant with any other plants but is a shelter for crabs, moths, butterflies. Coconuts in the Philippines are an essential plant as one of the top coconut exporting countries. The Philippines produces about 2.5million tons of coconut per year. They are not certain if the production of coconuts are increasing or decreasing because it all depends on the weather condition in the Philippines. It is said that the coconut farmers are very poor because they can only sell copra which means the dried meat of the coconut or virgin coconut oil as a cheap item. People are trying to use virgin coconut oil and copra as a bio fuel and diesel so they can maximize the earning of the poor farmers

table of contents...

 

 Potential Solutions

 

     How important are the presence of coconut oil in the Philippines? How can it be used to benefit the local Filipinos? There are numerous ways of using virgin coconut oil. This unique oil lends itself to variety of uses from cooking uses to make margarine, soap, cosmetics, skin treatment, fuel, medicine and more. Coconut oil is very popular in the Philippines because of its favorable climate. Coconut oil is not only easy to make but they are an overflowing resource in the Philippines which will promote many profits. Several realistic profits would lead the poor local Filipinos to an improved life style. There seem to be promising livelihood possibilities that may be able to benefit the local Filipinos all around the Philippines. Below are 2 possibilities with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages for each.

                                                                        

Possibility 1

 

Coconut oil as an engine fuel

 

      From a paper presented by Kokonut Pacific at the International Coconut Forum (“Bringing hope to remote island communities with virgin coconut oil production"), there was an amazing news that Coconut oil was tested and used to run diesel engines. Small islands in Papua New Guinea had diesel generators and trucks run on locally produced coconut oil during a trade blockade. The coconut oil/diesel fuel blend is mixed with one part kerosene. The blend is then mixed 2:1 with diesel to give an effective 64% coconut oil bio fuel. This blend is also used to run many vehicles and generators. Through many researches they gave good news to the islands that in their hot conditions, pure, filtered coconut oil is an adequate substitute for diesel.

 

 

Advantages:

1. Using coconut oil alternatively as to automotive diesel is more environmentally friendly. I learned through the research that coconut oil has less emissions and toxic fumes than petroleum diesel fuel. Coconut oil also runs smoother and reduces engine knock. Lastly it is very convenient and available to the coconut oil producer in the country side areas to run machinery and generate electricity when the transportation is cut off or simply if the prices are too high.

2. The income of the local Filipinos who produce coconut oil would rise if this would successfully work. Through the interview I learned that the local Filipinos are selling approximately 450mL of coconut oil for 100pesos (US $2). I am positive that the price would increase if a potential company started investing in this industry.

 

 

Disadvantages:

1. Coconut oil solidifies at approximately 25°C and even in the tropical countries, temperatures fall below 22°C on a number of nights. One solution is to fit a heat exchanger in the fuel line which warms up the fuel efficiently another option it to mix coconut oil with another fuel.

2. Unfortunately, I don’t have any vehicles to try out as an experiment.

 

 

table of contents...

 

Possibility 2

 

Interviewing the coconut oil producer, making it, listing the process- Action Step

 

      One of my top questions was, “how do you make coconut oil”? I wanted to see the process and try it out myself. When I figured out the process, it was not hard at all but rather interesting and enjoyable.

 

Advantages:

1. The main purpose of the ECOP project is to interact with the Filipinos and benefit the people living in the Philippines. I believe if people learn this process, they can use it for medicine, food, or even a diesel.

2. I believe God will be honored if people learn this process and use it for important uses such as skin treatment or heart disease. Many Filipinos can not afford expensive medicine.

3. Coconut is a sustainable resource that God gave to us in the Philippines. If we can learn the process and learn more uses of it, God will be honored through creativity and resourcefulness. It will never run out and it will always be there for use.

 

 

Disadvantages:

1. If everybody was to be informed about this method the coconut producers will lose their income.

2. I have figured out two methods in making coconut oil. More research needs to be done to determine whether the heating method is better or the extraction method. 

 

 

table of contents...

 

 

Action Step

 

Heating Method

1. Buy copra (dried meat of a coconut) from a local Filipino. They will scrape it out for you.                                                                                                       

2. Lay out the copra on the gauze proportionally.

3. Fold it up and roll it. Put two long chopsticks on each side and twist it to squeeze out the coconut milk.

4. Put the coconut milk on a frying pan and heat it for approximately 30 minutes.

5. Use a strainer to strain out the coconut oil.

 

Separation Method

1. Buy copra from a local Filipino. They will scrape it out for you.

2. Lay out the copra on the gauze proportionally.

3. Fold it up and roll it. Put two long chopsticks on each side and twist it to squeeze out the coconut milk.

4. Pour the coconut milk in to a bottle.

5. Let it settle for 2days.

6. Scoop out the coconut oil and use the strainer to strain out the coconut oil.

 

Bibliography

 

Eddy Fernandez. Personal Interview. 28 April 2008.

 

Gernot, Kotzer. Cocos Nucifera. 13 Apr. 2008

<http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Coco_nuc.html>.

 

Palmguide.org. 2008. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden. 27 Apr. 2008

< http://palmguide.org>.http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/article10132.htm

 

“Cocos nucifera.” Wikipedai.org. 27 April 2008.

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coconut>. 

 

“Coconut tree.”  Kew.org. 24 April 2008.

The coconut tree. 27April 2008. <http://www.kew.org/ksheets/coconut.html>

 

Berlin, Chris. Types of Palms. 24 April. 2008-05-04

<http://ambergriscaye.com/cocopalms/palmtype.html>.

 

"Coconut Palm." World Book. 2006.

 

Fife, Bruce. “Coconut oil and heart disease.” Coconut oil. 2004.Coconut research center, 26 April. 2008

<http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/article10132.htm>.

 

 

 

table of contents...

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.