| 
  • If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Finally, you can manage your Google Docs, uploads, and email attachments (plus Dropbox and Slack files) in one convenient place. Claim a free account, and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio (from the makers of PBworks) can automatically organize your content for you.

View
 

Reducing Jeepney Emissions 0708

Page history last edited by PBworks 12 years, 9 months ago

 

"Reducing Jeepney Emissions"

 

 

 


Description and Rationale

The Jeepney Muffler

The Filipino public jeepney, translated into the Filipino language as dyip, has done much good to the Philippine community. The jeepney had originally came from World War ll but transformed as a public use jeepny for the Filipino people. The main problem jeepney’s have cause to the Filipino are its exhaust pipes. Most jeepney drivers throughout the Philippines do not take care of their jeepny’s smog device. The unclean polluted smog that comes out of the jeepney’s muffler cause many damages on the human body.

How much does the jeepney’s smog impact the Filipino people? Do the Filipino people really want to make a change to the polluted smog from the jeepney’s for a safer and healthier type of smog? Is there a simple and expensive technique to change the mufflers on all jeepney’s to stop the polluted smog? Will it really change the environment of the Philippines? Would the jeepney drivers be willing to change their mufflers to make the air cleaner and well again?

Is there a way or a new technique for jeepney drivers to change their mufflers to make the air of the Philippines clean and fresh? In a car, there is something to cover over the muffler to clean the smog coming out of it and it’s called a catalyst. That helps purify the smog a little bit before coming out of the muffler. But, many jeepney drivers do not attach this to their exhaust mufflers or fix it when broken. What are the reasons of jeepney driver’s not fixing the problems? Is there a good technique to help jeepney drivers to clean the air by placing a catalyst onto their exhaust pipes?

The preliminary purpose of this environmental project will be to research the effects of jeepney’s smog on the human body and trying to fix the problem by lessening the smog from jeepney’s mufflers. The research of this environmental project with be through firsthand observations and interviews with jeepney drivers with the assistance of my Ate (helper). All of these types of researches will help with the problem of the jeepney smog in the atmosphere.

It is anticipated that fixing the smog in the air from the jeepney’s might help yield healthier lives for the Filipinos and a clearer understanding of the problems jeepneys are causing throughout the environment.

 

table of contents...

Biology

 

Common Names and Synonyms

 

Cocos nucifera is also called the tree of life. The early Spanish explorers called it coco, which means “monkey face” since it looked similar to the face of a monkey. The second word in the given name, nucifera means “nut-bearing.” To most people around the Philippines and other countries, coconut is the most common name. In the Philippines, coconut is translated into the Tagalog language as niyog.

 

Classification

 

 

Kingdom:  Plantae  (plants)

Phylum:    Tracheophyta  (Vascular plants)

Class:       Liliopsida  (monocotyledon)

Order:       Arecales  (flowering plants)

Family:      Arecaceae  (palm family)

Genus:      Cocos  (coconut palm)

Species:    Nucifera  (coconut palm)

 

There are many types of palm trees and a coconut (Cocos nucifera) palm tree is one of them. A Cocos nucifera is the only palm tree that produces the coconut shell. There are no other known species for the genus Cocos.

 

 

table of contents...

 

Morphology and Physical Description

 

 

The coconut tree may grow to 100 ft. in height but the average height is 20-50 ft. It has a single trunk, its bark is smooth and grey colored, and marked by ring scars around the trunk. The coconut tree has a swollen base on the bottom with lots of thick roots spreading through the soil. The pinnate leaves of the coconut tree are estimated to be about 4-6 m long and the individual leaves themselves are about 60-90 cm in length, having spear shape ends.

The fruit of the cocos nucifera is known to be the coconut. The coconut is a fibrous fruit. Each coconut weighs approximately 1-2 kg in weight and about 10 in. in length. It has a very tough, thick skin from the outside attached to the shell inside. A white meat (called copra) lines the inside of the shell. The meat is usually shredded to be eaten or is cooked to make delicious food.

The coconut oil inside the coconut is also used for a variety of things. The coconut oilis used for cooking and for burning in oil lamps. It has recently been tested for use as a feedstock for biodiesel to be used  indiesel engines. With this now available, it may be use to power generators and transportation using diesel engines.

 

 

table of contents...

 

 

Getting Food

 

A coconut tree is usually found in humid coastal areas between latitudes 26 degrees north and south. The average temperature for a coconut tree to mature properly is about 27C (81F). They are very hard to establish in dry climates and cannot grow without frequent irrigation. Coconut trees need a continuous uniform rainfall pattern throughout the year.

The cocos nucifera tree grows on a wide variety of soils but sandy, saline soils are the best. The coconut tree can grow in a wide range of textures such as light, medium, and heavy soil. The soil requires a free drainage for water to flow through. It also requires a lot of sunlight and regular rainfall over the years.  These are the growing and living conditions of the coconut tree. 

 

Reproduction

 

Male flowers open first, creating pollen for about 2 weeks. Female flowers are not usually accessible until about 3 weeks after the opening of the inflorescence. Assembly cross-pollination is the usual pattern. Wind is the main pollinating agent. Cocos nucifera starts to flower approximately after the 6th year. Coconut seeds fall onto the ground and the milk inside provides fresh water so that the seed may sprout out of the seed. Many coconut trees grow beside rivers or seas and drop their seeds into the water.

 

Environmental Factors

 

 

The coconut palm leaves are attacked a lot by a caterpillar (Homaledra sabalella) and it feeds on the leaf tissue and cause tissue death.  Another pest that feeds on young leaves and damages seedlings and mature coconut palms is the hispine beetle. In the Philippines, around last year in time, many coconut trees were infested with this pest, the hispine beetle. These are the two main pest that effect coconut trees.

 

table of contents...

 

 

Origin and Distribution

 

The origin of the coconut is one big mystery and highly debatable. Some people say it all came from South America. Others say that at the time of the discovery of the New World, coconuts were confined to limited areas on the Pacific coast of Central America. The wide distribution of coconut has been assisted by man and oceanic currents as well. Today, coconuts are grown throughout the Southeastern Asian countries as well as in Central and South America.

 

Importance to People

 

 

In the Philippines, Coco-methyl ester (CME) is being used as biodiesel for the car engines. CME is a clean burning alternative fuel or biodiesel, from coconut oil. The Philippines has started using this biodiesel just recently, whereas before they were using fossilized fuel from other countries, which was expensive.

Pure biodiesel is 100% biodegradable, non-toxic, and effectively free of sulfur. Biodiesel can protect the engine from wearing out, cleans the fuel system, and breaks down burning chamber deposits. It may lower the exhaust emission if the engine of the car is in good condition. With this the air in the Philippines will become much cleaner and safer to breathe.

The Philippines is number two on the list for the most coconut production around the whole world. With so many coconuts, CME should be used in all cars to help clean the environment. Doing this, the Philippine economy will be helped a lot because it would directly benefit a third of the Philippine countrymen, particularly those living in the rural coconut areas. The 25 million coconut farmers and family members will benefit from the use of CME and it will save up to 14 billion pesos in foreign exchange. It also will reduce air pollution saving the lives 500,000 children who die every year in Asia due to the effects of air pollutants.

Also, coconuts are very nutritious and abundant in vitamins, fiber, and minerals. It provides a lot more health benefits than one might expect. The coconut’s oil possesses healing properties far beyond that of any other nutritional oil and is widely used in traditional medicine among Asian and Pacific populations. There are many diseases that coconut is believed to cure among the Filipino people.

The coconut oil is used also for biodiesel (known as Coco-methyl ester, CME) amongst the islands of the Philippines. With the use of biodiesel in car engines the environment will become a much healthier and safer place to live in.

The coconut palm has many different uses, food and non-food, that are helpful in the households of Filipinos. They use the leaves for crafts, to make baskets, roofing thatch, and clothing and the trunks provide wood to build with.

 

Survivability and Endangered Status

 

It is also at risk to a disease called Lethal Yellowing (LY). The affects are that the plant turns yellow and the entire tree eventually dies. The disease is caused by an organism larger then a virus called phytoplasma. It is smaller then a bacteria and is born by a leaf-hopping insect, the Myndus crudus. This phytoplasma can live in a coconut tree for more then 18 months before symptoms are visible. To treat the disease, the trunk will need to be drilled in and add oxycycline antibiotic to keep it living.

table of contents... 

 

Potential Solutions

 

Are the Filipino people affected by air pollution from untreated fuel used in engines of motorized vehicles? Research shows the environment has been destroyed with pollution from the vehicles not following emission control techniques. There are techniques and possibilities available to improve the problem. One possible solution may be a by-product of the coconut.

Coconut is plenteous in the Philippines and it has been established that coconut has numerous benefits for the Filipino people. The researcher has found that coconuts are used to save and clean the environment in the Philippines. There seem to be numerous livelihood possibilities that can be of to benefit to the poor families, farmers in the rural areas / country side and or the city drivers. Below are 3 possible environmental solutions with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages for each solution.

 

 

Possibility 1

 

COCO-METHYL ESTER (CME) USES

From the Caltex.com/ph website, “Caltex Power Diesel B1” has fascinating input into the environment of the Philippines with the use of the coconut. In May 6, 2007, the government passed a law that requires all diesel engines be fixed to biodiesel. This is under the Biofuels Act or also known as the Republic Act 9367. President Arroyo had signed this law in January 2007. The Biofuels Act is a blending of 1% biodiesel with diesel engine fuels. There has been other biodiesel made out of other plants and or animal fats but here in the Philippines coconut has been used.

Advantages:

1. Coconut-Methyl ester (CME) is the only local biodiesel in the Philippines. What is this? It is a clean burning alternative fuel or biodiesel, derived from coconut oil. Is this the same as virgin coconut oil or coconut oil used for cooking? No. Coconut-Methyl ester is derived from further processing of coconut oil and is intended for fuel application. 1% of the Coconut-Methyl ester in diesel can protect your engine from wear, cleans your fuel system, and breaks down combustion chamber deposits.

2. Many poor farmers in the rural areas of the Philippines may make more income if they grow, harvest and sell coconuts for Coconut-Methyl ester. Additionally, it will help the Filipino economy. Coconut-Methyl ester biodiesel may be found in most Caltex gas stations as Power Diesel B1.

 

 

Disadvantages:

1. The Philippine National Standards (PNS) currently will only allow 1% of Coconut-Methyl ester in diesel engines. It could be better with more percent of Coconut-Methyl ester but 1% is the maximum.

2. It will take millions more Filipino workers to be more committed into harvesting coconuts for Coconut-Methyl ester and will be more complicated for the business owners. More money investments will be needed for coconut plantations development. It will take a large number of plantations of coconuts will have to be created and developed in the Philippines because only a little bit of Coconut-Methyl ester is taken from each coconut. Plantations will take up more space. Many tropical forests in the Philippines will have to be destroyed so that coconut plantations may be planted and harvested. 

table of contents...

 

Possibility 2

 

PLANTATIONS

From an abs-cbnnews.com article, “Romblon leads way in producing cheap diesel fuel,” David Dizon journals about Romblon Rep. Eduardo C. Firmalo opens a first-ever ‘coco diesel’ or coconut methyl ester (CME) plantation in Tablas Island here in the Philippines. Romblon is the second largest producer of coconuts in the country.

 

Advantages:

1. Having one plantation for CME will provide more jobs for workers for their product because Tablas Island is one of the poorest regions. Eduardo C. Firmalo pronounced during a Barangay Odiongan, in Tablas Island that since Tablas Island has a daily production of over 720,000 coconuts it will ensure the sustainability of the alternative fuel projects and increase energy self-sufficiency in the province.

2. Governor Perpetuo Ylagan said that all local vehicles in the province will be required to use Rombtron diesel which is their local name for biodiesel. Also, a provincial scientist, Bilshan Servanez, said that Rombtron diesel will be priced lower/cheaper than commercial diesel sold in the province. This will help the poor Filipinos to help themselves take care of their environment. Many poor Filipinos will be able to afford Rombtron diesel/biodiesel. This will help clean the atmosphere and take care of our healthy bodies.

 

Disadvantages:

1. It will be hard to create support for this new biodiesel plantation because it is in one of the poorest regions in the Philippines. Perhaps investors will not be interested in such a place because of its poverty. There may not be enough money available for this plantation.

2. So far, this is the only plantation I have found that is planting coconuts for coconut-methyl ester (CME). If I have only found one, it means that not many businesses care that much about helping change the diesel problems. The biodiesel plantation is not in a familiar place for the Filipino people and so it may not be heard. More information about the place needs to be published and advertised. 

table of contents...

 

Possibility 3

 

PUBLISHING A BROCHURE

I have made a brochure about biodiesel. The brochure gives a clear explanation about what biodiesel is and what Coconut-Methyl ester is too. After writing, editing, and adding creativity, I rode in taxi cabs and communicated with the driver. I introduced myself and explained I was in high school doing an environmental project for my biology class. Then, I explained my topic, read my brochure thoroughly and gave the driver a copy for himself. My first taxi driver was named R.R. Sales, and he was very much interested in what I was researching about. Sales had many questions that I was able to answer and give a good explanation. My second taxi driver was named Richard, who was weak in speaking in English but was able to understand. Here are my advantages and disadvantages about making a brochure for the Filipino people to understand.

 

Advantage:

 

1. When talking to one on one with another person it is more clearly understood. I talked to one person at a time which made it easier for the listener to understand and ask questions. Making a brochure and talking to someone one on one helps the listener to have a clearer thought about what the topics about.

2. Creating a brochure and giving it to the Filipino people will help the environment. It will not only be taught to that one Filipino person I communicated with but with a brochure he could pass it amongst his Filipino friends and relatives. My first taxi driver was very much interested in what I was doing so he asked for more then one copy so that he could share it to friends.

 

Disadvantage:

 

1. Handing a brochure about my topic to a Filipino and explaining about it may not be heard among other Filipino’s. A disadvantage is that not many Filipino’s may hear about this environmental challenge because the only thing that’s being handed out is simple brochures to individuals. There needs to be another way for the Filipino people to hear about this environmental challenge. A brochure is not enough.

2. With only a brochure, information may not be all written and informed. A brochure has such little space for information to be said. The Filipino people may not read all the information that I wanted them to read on a brochure. I wanted to add more information but there really is not much space.

 

 

 

 

 

 table of contents...

 

Bibliography

 

Chan, Edward. "Cocos Nucifera." Species Profile for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Apr. 2006. 29 Apr. 2008 <http://www.agroforestry.net/tti/Cocos-coconut.pdf>.

"Coconuts." A Trip to Indonesia. 4 Feb. 2001. 30 Apr. 2008 <http://www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/tripIndcoco.htm>.

"Coconut." Coconut Research Center. 2004. FDA. 30 Apr. 2008 <http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/>.

"Cocos Nucifera." Ayushveda.Com. 2008. 30 Apr. 2008 <http://www.ayushveda.com/herbs/cocos-nucifera.htm>.

"Cocos Nucifera." FloriData. 2008. Google.Com. 1 May 2008 <http://www.floridata.com/ref/C/cocos_nuc.cfm>.

"Cocos Nucifera." ZipcodeZoo.Com. 29 Apr. 2008. BayScience Foundation, Inc. 1 May 2008 <http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/C/Cocos_nucifera.asp>.

Dizon, David. "Romblon Leads Way in Producing Cheap Diesel Fuel." ABS-CBN News Online. 2004. 1 May 2008 <http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=5279>.

Duke, James A. "Cocos Nucifera L." Horticulture and Landscape Architecture|Purdue University. 8 July 1996. Handbook of Energy Crops. 1 May 2008 <http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Cocos_nucifera.html>.

Gardens, Kew. "Cocos Nucifera L." THE COCONUT PALM. 2008. 1 May 2008 <http://www.dipbot.unict.it/Palms/Descr01.html>.

"Power Diesel - FAQ." Caltex. 2006. Chevron Corporation. 28 Apr. 2008 <http://www.caltex.com/ph/en/techron/powerdiesel_faq.asp>.

Yap, Samuel. "Forum." The Official Website of the Republic of the Philippines. 2008. 1 May 2008 <http://www.gov.ph/forum/thread.asp?rootID=84870&catID=27>.

 

 

 

table of contents...

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.